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DRAMATIC ARTISTIC AND LITERARY RIGHTS ORGANISATION

DALRO, established in 1967, stands as a stalwart in the realm of collective management organizations (CMOs). It licenses works, facilitates reproduction permissions, collects fees, and remunerates copyright holders in three key areas: literary works, artistic works, and published editions. This includes a wide range of creative expressions such as writing, paintings, sculptures, and photographs.

The Recording Industry of South Africa (RiSA)

RiSA is a non-profit organization acting as a trade association for South African record companies. It represents members with a common economic interest in the recorded music industry. RiSA plays a vital role in promoting the interests of record labels and ensuring a conducive environment for the growth of the industry.

South African Music Performance Rights Association (SAMPRA)

SAMPRA is a collective management organization (CMO) tasked with administering Needletime Rights on behalf of recording artists and record labels. Needletime Rights pertain to the rights of performers and producers over the use of sound recordings in broadcasts and public performances.

Southern African Music Rights Organisation (SAMRO):

SAMRO primarily administers Performing Rights on behalf of its members. It licenses music users such as broadcasters, live music venues, and retailers, collecting license fees and distributing royalties to rights holders. SAMRO ensures that creators receive fair compensation for the public use of their musical works.

CAPASSO

CAPASSO is a Digital Rights Licensing Agency based in Johannesburg, South Africa. It collects and distributes royalties to its members, including music publishers and composers, for the use of their works in digital formats. CAPASSO focuses on navigating the complexities of online music consumption and ensuring that creators are duly compensated in the digital age.

IMPRA

IMPRA serves as a Needle Time royalty collecting society in South Africa. It ensures that performers and producers receive compensation for the use of sound recordings in broadcasts and public performances, particularly focusing on needle time rights in radio and television broadcasts.

AIRCO

AIRCO, the Association of Independent Record Companies, is a non-profit organization representing the interests of independent record labels across South Africa. It advocates for the visibility and market access of independent labels, ensuring their voices are heard in national and international forums.

RISA Audio Visual (RAV)

RAV is the licensing organization set up by RiSA to administer the rights of its members for the broadcasting of music videos and the dubbing and distribution rights in sound recordings. RAV ensures that members' interests are protected in the audiovisual domain, managing music video broadcasting rights and audio dubbing rights.

Despite the diverse array of organizations catering to various aspects of the music industry, concerns linger regarding transparency, accountability, and the equitable distribution of royalties. The proliferation of multiple entities further complicates matters, leading to overlaps, inefficiencies, and confusion within the industry. So, do we need so many entities? What

are the advantages and disadvantages of this decentralized approach? These are questions that require careful consideration as South Africa's music industry strives for greater cohesion and effectiveness in protecting the rights and interests of its creators.